Islamic Genocide (since 1915, 17 Million dead?)

ISLAMIC GENOCIDE

Some of highlighted mass casualties by (political) Islam in course of the last century, from 1915 and on (updated June, 2012)

  • Casualties: 2,700,000 Chritians – (1915-1923) by Ottoman-Empire Muslim Turkey. 750,000 Assyrians, 500,000 Greeks and 1.5 million Armenians.[1]
    Nature: 1.) Ethnic cleansing.[2] 2.) Islamic Jihad.[3][4]
  • Casualties: close to 27,000 In Israel between 1920-2012, at the hands of Arab/Muslims. 24,526 Israelis/Jews killed, 35,356 injured, and 1,967 Arab “Palestinians” killed by other Arab “Palestinians.”[5]
    Nature: roots and motivation: the genocide campaign[6][7][8][9] began (mainly) in the early 1920s by the supreme Islam leader, the pan-Arab Mufti, Haj Amin al-Husseini, motivated by both: ethnic racism and religious bigotry,[10] which is the root and the ungoing motivation for the violence.[11][12][13] In WW2, the Mufti worked with Adolf Hitler,[14][15] together with his henchman and spokesman Ahmad Shukairy,[16] the first PLO leader, who called in 1967 to ‘throw the Jews into the sea.’[17][18][19]
    There were numerous calls for anti-Israel jihad.[20][21][22]
    Note: most Israeli casualties are innocent non-combatants. Most Arab “Palestinian” casualties are combatants and/or involved in violent attacks.[23] (“The great majority of Arabs killed in the framework of the Israeli-Arab Conflict were killed as a result of wars instigated by the Arabs…”[24]) All the while, humane Israeli soldiers sacrifice their own lives in order to minimize Arab casualties.[25] Not to mention Arab-Islamic intentional routine in causing deaths on their side via human shields.[26] Same goes to Hezbollah tactics.[27] In fact: It stands out, the ‘IDF’s unparalleled record of sparing civilians in counter-terrorism operations.’[28]
  • Casualties: Between 3,000 and over 10,000[29] Hindus were massacred in 1921, Kerala, India. [Moplah riots].
    Nature: They were “butchered in circumstances of barbarity, skinned alive, made to dig their own graves before slaughter, running into thousands ; women, andpurda (veiled) women too, raped. Thousands were forcibly converted.”[30][31] by “a fanatical Moslem sect which attempted forcible conversions to Islam.”[32] They were decendants of Arabs who were intending to establish an Islamic regime.[33] The Moplahs who “regarded all non-Muslims as infidels, and who had been influenced by the Khilafat movement, declared two independent Muslim kingdoms. They then attacked both Europeans and Hindus.”[34]They called for a Holy war against Britain, as a “duty of Mahomedans to join in a Jehad, or holy war,”[35] and against Hindus.[36] “The Khilafat Muslim leaders.. sent telegrams to Moplah rebels extolling them as heroes fighting for the glory of their religion.”[37]
  • Casualties: 6,000 Assyrians, in 1933, Simele, Iraq.[38] It was seen as “a Muslim jihad, holy war, waged against a small Christian community.”[39] Indeed, “All Arab classes were called by the Government organs, such as newspapers and others, to join in the Holy War. Non-compliance mean treachery.”[40]
  • Casualties: 3,500,000Sudan – from 1953 to 2005.[41] Including 2,500,000 between 1983-2005.[42][43]
    Nature: Arab Islamic “supremacy” over “inferior” Southerners. [44][45] Jihad declared in 1983 by Numeiri,[46] and 1991 by al-Bashir.[47]
  • Casualties: 100,000 in Kurdistan-Iraq war [1961-1970], by the Iraqi government.[48]
  • Casualties: over 100,000,[49] or upto 400,000,[50] in Papua New Guinea, since 1963, by Muslim Indonesian: government and Jihadists.
    Nature: Apartheid / ethnic cleansing[51] and jihad.[52][53]
  • Casualties: between 500,000 and 1,000,000. (between 1965-66).[54] in Indonesia. Muslims Vs. communists rift.[55] Islamic parties helping Suharto,[56] Islamic leaders were calling for a jihad against the PKI,[57] as well as the official press,[58] and Suharto’s military gave a green light for Muslims to massacre in a jihad.[59]
  • Casualties: 3,000,000Nigeria, by Muslim [Hausa / Fulani] dominated forces against the Ibo / Christians [1966-1970].[60][61][62]
  • Casualties: 2,000-25,000 between Jordanians and “Palestinians” 1970-71 (Black September).[63]
  • Casualties: around 16,000 in terror attacks in India since 1970. 15,674 before the 2008 Mumbai attacks of 11/26.[64]
  • Casualties: 300,000Lebanon 1970s-1999 by Syria and ‘Palestinians’.[65]
    Nature: Muslims against Christians.[66]
  • Casualties: 3,000,000Bangladesh, 1971 by Pakistan,[67] with help from local Islamists.[68]
    Nature: Islamic Pakistanis’ racism,[69] contempt for “impure” Bengalis.[70]
  • Casualties: 300,000[71]Uganda 1971-1979 under Idi Amin. Or 500,000.[72]
    Character: 1.) Idi Amin – fanatical Muslim.[73][74][75] 2.) Promoting Islam in Uganda.[76]] 3.) Most of his victims were Christians.[77] Many were murdered for their faith.[78] 4.) He campaigned a jihad holy war against Uganda’s Christians.[79] and against Jews.[80] 5.) An anti-White racist.[81] 6.) Anti-Asian, carrying out ethnic cleansing of 60,000 Indians,[82] of 60,000 Indians,[83] claiming it was an act of “liberation” and inspired by God…[84] 7.) Brutal dictator.[85] 8.) A Hitler admirer,[86] fascist,[87][88] whose ‘fascist regime’ was supported by the Soviets[89] and by the ‘Islamic Legion.’[90]
  • Casualties: 200,000East timor (Between 1975 and mid-1999) by (Islamic) Indonesia.[91]
    Nature: oppression and jihad.[92][93]
  • Casualties: over 300,000Iraq (1979-2003) under (Quran-ic[94]) Saddam Hussein.[95] Or as many as 500,000.[96]
    Nature: dictatorship;[97] anti-Kurdish Arab-racism;[98] and Sunni Vs. Shiite “religious intolerance.”[99]
    Note: Baathist racist Arab tyrants like Saddam Hussein, carried out masssacres in the name of Islam,[100] and used highly, the ‘anti-infidel’ ideology.[101] He “encouraged Islamism during the 1990s.”[102]
  • Casualties: 80,000[103]Iran 1979 radical fascist[104][105] ‘Islamic Revolution.’

  • Casualties: between 500,000 and 1,500,000Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988).[106]
    Nature: 1.) Sunni-Shiite intolerance.[107] 2.) Arab racism/supremacy against Persians by Baathist Iraq.[108] 3.) Persian racism against Arabs.[109] 3.) “Iran’s ruling mullahs proclaimed a holy war (jihad) and used ‘human sea’ tactics, sending forward wave after wave of men, and often children.”[110]
  • Casualties: 40,000Syria (1982, Hama by H. al-Assad).[111]
  • Casualties: between 100,000-150,000Yemen (1984-86 N. Yemen civil war).[112]
    Nature: 1.) Pan-Arabism, Nasser’s Arab nationalism.[113] 2.) Egyptian, Soviet backed [Muhammad's-family decsendats] Royalists vs Saudi Arabian, Jordanian, Iranian backed fighters.[114] 3.) Sunni-Shiite divide.[115]
  • Casualties: 40,000 Kurds by Muslim Turkey 1984-1999.[116][117][118]
    Nature: Oppression and ethnic racism.[119]
  • Casualties: 10,000 – [Islamic Republic of] Iran (1988, massacre of political prisnoers).[120] Or 14,000.[121] Or 30,000.[122][123]
    Nature: ‘for being “infidels”‘[124]
  • Casualties: between 350,000 to 1,000,000.[125] Somalia civil war since 1991.
    Factors: 1.) Warlords/clans, with Islamists playing a major part.[126][127][128][129][130]
    2.) The AIAI (al-Ittihad al-Islamiyya) was the main anti-Barre force, though it was known to be very Islamist, it was backed by Somalis because of its strong anti-Barre image. After Barre’s fall, the AIAI turned to a jihad against Ethiopia, it was aided by Saudis. “The Ethiopian military far overpowered AIAI destroying the organization’s political and military infrastructures. The defeat led to the disbandment of al-Ittihad al-Islamiyya in January 1997. After AIAI dissolved, many of its former members fled to Mogadishu and joined up with the Islamic Courts movement that was beginning to gain momentum there.”[131]
    3.) Ruthless Sunni warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid (Aideed) – wanted Somalia governed by “Islamic princpiles.”[132] He was becoming increasingly ‘Islamist’ in nature. especially since Islamic Mujahiddin were fighting for him.[133]
    4.) One of the highlighted infamous incidents, was the al-Qaeda backed Islamists’ attack on humanitarian US mission, killing 18, in Oct, 1993.[134][135]
    5.) Sudan’s Hassan al-Turabi played a major role in Somali warlords feud,[136] his Jihadists.[137][138]
    6.) Aidid’s Islamists friends/allies: Being helped militarily by Sudan’s Hassan Turabi and Iranian trained Islamic-fundamentalist militia, and using Hezbollah tactics, as Aidid, Sudan and Iran were “natural” allies, sharing common enemies: US and UN’s Coptic Boutrous-Ghali, “considered an avowed enemy of religious extremists.”[139]
    7.) The ‘Union of Islamic Courts’ (IUC) – “a system of clan-based sharia courts that fought to gain control of Mogadishu through their militias.”[140] It contains some radical elements, with some linked to al-Qaeda.[141] It has since, became more and more powerful, planning secretly for a great ‘Islamic Republic.’[142]
    Some see the ICU, like the Taliban, in politics of ‘radical Islamism.’[143] Note: Civil war also exposed deep racism from Afro-Arabs against natives. Arabs ‘always run the show.’[144]
  • Casualties: over 100,000Algeria (between 1992 and 2002).[145] Or even 200,000.[146]
    Nature: Islamists Vs. government.[147]
  • Casualties: 35,000 in Islamic terror attacks in Pakistan, since the 1990s. (Estimate as of June, 2011).[148]
  • Casualties: over 160,000,[149] or at leaset over 151,000.[150] in Iraq, since 2003.
    Factors:
    1) Intra-Islamic bigotry: Sunni-Shiite divide.[151][152][153]
    2) Al-Qaeda[154][155][156]
    3) Baathists.[157][158]
    4) Iran and its Hezbollah thugs.[159][160][161][162][163]
    Note: The bloodshed continues after US withdrawal.[164][165]
  • Casualties: 30,000 children in Somalia – 2011 famine, Islamists’ fault,[166][167][168] who have been refusing, banning aid,[169][170][171][172] even preventing Somalis fleeing famine-ridden areas.[173]
  • Casualties: 16,000[174]Syria 2011-2012, or at least over 15,000[175] or at least over 13,000[176] by Syrian forces with Iranian[177][178][179] and Hezbollah active participation[180][181][182]
    Nature: Alawite Islamic apartheid,[183] Sunni Vs Alawi ‘religious hatred.’[184][185][186][187][188][189] It also serves as a “Battleground Between Sunnis and Shiites.”[190]

PS
Of course, there’s also a very long list of many thousands of Islamic motivated attacks,[191] affecting: The US, Argentina, UK, France, Spain, Australia, India, Israel, Russia, Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands, Chechnya, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Algeria, Pakistan, (example: 6,681 were killed in 2,782 terror attacks in 2011 alone[192]), Iraq, Iran, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Morocco, Yemen, Uzbekistan, Gaza, Tunisia, Mauritania, Kenya, Eritrea, Somalia, Nigeria, Sudan, Ethiopia, Mali, Tanzania, Chad, Tajikistan, China, Nepal, the Maldives, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Macedonia, etc.[193] Especially, the bloody last decade of [over] 19,000 Islamic terror attacks (between 2001-2012).[194] Some estimated at least 40,000 deaths by Islamists between Sep. 11, 2001-2010, alone.[195]

Notes

  1. ^ Conference on Assyrian Genocide to Be Held in Armenia.” AINA, March 23, 2012. http://www.aina.org/news/20120323114901.htm
  2. ^ Richard G. Hovannisian: “The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies,” Transaction Publishers, 2007, p. 7. http://books.google.com/books?id=CB4Bh0-zrgoC&pg=PA7
  3. ^ Assyrian Human Rights Report 1997. AINA. http://www.aina.org/reports/ahrr.htm
  4. ^ Janet Levy: “The Jihad Against the Armenian, Assyrian, and Greek Christians.” AT, August 7, 2011. http://www.americanthinker.com/2011/08/the_jihad_against_the_armenian_assyrian_and_greek_christians.html
  5. ^ “The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Total Casualties 1920 – 2012.” JVL, 2012. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/casualtiestotal.html
  6. ^ Dmitry Radyshevsky: “Occupation vs. Genocide,” INN, March 24, 2004. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/3486
  7. ^ Louis Rene Beres: “Israel Has Always Faced Arab Genocide,” INN, Sep 2, 2003. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/2692. CAFI Newsletter, September 2, 2003. http://christianactionforisrael.org/newsl/news150.html#4
  8. ^ Memri, search. http://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Amemri.org+%22annihilation%22
  9. ^ PalWatch, search. http://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Apalwatch.org+%22annihilation%22
  10. ^ Alan M. Dershowitz: “The Case Against Israel’s Enemies: Exposing Jimmy Carter and Others Who Stand in the Way of Peace,” John Wiley and Sons, 2009, p. 158. http://books.google.com/books?id=LBnn7AR5R6YC&pg=PA158
  11. ^ Daniel Schwammenthal: “The Mufti of Berlin.” ‘Arab-Nazi collaboration is a taboo topic in the West.’ WSJ, September 24, 2009. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203440104574400532495168894.html
  12. ^ M. D. Evans: It’s about bigotry, Imus. April, 2007. http://stories-etc.com/imus.htm
  13. ^ Giulio Meotti: “Arab racism prevents peace.” YNet, April 4, 2012. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4212288,00.html
  14. ^ Joseph B. Schechtman: “The Mufti and the Fuehrer: the rise and fall of Haj Amin el-Husseini,” T. Yoseloff, 1965. http://books.google.com/books?id=TZZtAAAAMAAJ
  15. ^ Philip Mattar: “The Mufti of Jerusalem: Al-Hajj Amin Al-Husayni and the Palestinian National Movement,” Columbia University Press, Jun 1, 1992, p. 102. http://books.google.com/books?id=XH8qTS5xNUIC&pg=PA102
  16. ^ Congressional record: proceedings and debates of the United States Congress: Vol. 113, Pt. 12, United States. Congress, Govt. Print. Off., 1967, p. A-525. http://books.google.com/books?id=8HEuAAAAIAAJ&dq=henchman
  17. ^ Walter Laqueur: “The struggle for the Middle East: the Soviet Union and the Middle East, 1958-70,” Penguin, 1972, p. 9. http://books.google.com/books?id=I8kyAAAAMAAJ&q=%22throw+the+Jews+into+the+sea,%22
  18. ^ Paul Eidelberg: “An American political scientist in Israel: from Athens to Jerusalem,” Lexington Books, Sep 1, 2010, p. 40. http://books.google.com/books?id=pDcemvMzm8QC&pg=PA40
  19. ^ The New Middle East, Issues 28-39, New Middle East, Jan 1, 1971, p. 6. http://books.google.com/books?id=X0YsAQAAIAAJ&q=%22into+the+sea%22
  20. ^ Mordechai Nisan: “Identity and Civilization: Essays on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam,” University Press of America, 1999, p. 153. http://books.google.com/books?id=K-TwJB1XrjwC&pg=PA153
  21. ^ Shlomo Sharan, David Bukay: “Crossovers: Anti-Zionism & Anti-Semitism,” Transaction Publishers, 2010, p. 14. http://books.google.com/books?id=yvMYaP1WLj0C&pg=PA14
  22. ^ David Canter: “The Faces of Terrorism: Multidisciplinary Perspectives,” John Wiley & Sons, Dec 17, 2009, p. 54. http://books.google.com/books?id=8Kyc9j3-VjIC&pg=PA54
  23. ^ Sylvana Foa: “Targeting Toddlers. The War on Non-Combatants.” Village Voice, June 4, 2002. http://www.villagevoice.com/2002-06-04/news/targeting-toddlers/
  24. ^ “A Homemade Genocide.” The Arab world is subject to genocide, it is true. It’s just that it’s mostly self-inflicted, and Israel has nothing to do with any of it. An article by Ben Dror Yemini, Ma’ariv correspondent. http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/ART1/483/521.html
  25. ^ Alan Dershowitz: “The Case for Israel.” John Wiley & Sons, Jan 6, 2011, p. 68. http://books.google.com/books?id=UG4_QXdpFQUC&pg=PR68
  26. ^ 111st CONGRESSIONAL SENATE Bills. From the U.S. Government Printing Office. [S. Res. 10 ats]. http://web.archive.org/web/20090701020404/http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-111sres10ATS/html/BILLS-111sres10ATS.htm. “House Passes Resolution on Gaza.” Washington, Jan 9, 2009. http://chrissmith.house.gov/News/DocumentSingle.aspx?DocumentID=108394. http://www.rilin.state.ri.us/BillText09/SenateText09/S0100.pdf
  27. ^ Bill Text. 110th Congress (2007-2008). H.RES.125.IH. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c110:H.RES.125.IH:
  28. ^ Leo Renner: “IDF’s unparalleled record of sparing civilians in counter-terrorism operations.” AT, December 30, 2011. http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2011/12/idfs_unparalleled_record_of_sparing_civilians_in_counter-terrorism_operations.html
  29. ^ “Moplah Revolt.” India Netzone. History of India. http://www.indianetzone.com/3/mopla_revolt.htm
  30. ^ Sydney Smith: “The Edinburgh review,” Vol. 244, A. and C. Black, Jan 1, 1926, p. 236. http://books.google.com/books?id=6iIeAQAAIAAJ&&dq=%22in+circumstances+of+barbarity,+skinned+alive,+made+to+dig+their+own+graves+before+slaughter,+running+into%22&hl=en
  31. ^ Michael O’Dwyer: “India as i Knew it,” Mittal Publications, 1988, p. 307. http://books.google.com/books?id=2dW4yLJNw5oC&pg=PA307
  32. ^ Roy Walker: “Sword of gold,” Orient Longmans on behalf of Gandhi Peace Foundation, 1969, p. 89. http://books.google.com/books?&id=PHlDAAAAYAAJ&q=%22fanatical+moslem+sect%22
  33. ^ Lajpat Rai (Lala), Bal Ram Nanda: “The collected works of Lala Lajpat Rai,” Vol. 10, Manohar, 2008, p. 251. http://books.google.com/books?id=J3oMAQAAMAAJ&q=%22Arab+immigrants%22
  34. ^ Martin Gilbert: “A History of the Twentieth Century: The Concise Edition of the Acclaimed World History,” HarperCollins, Dec 17, 2002, p. 129. http://books.google.com/books?id=jhwY1j8Ao3kC&pg=PA129
  35. ^ The parliamentary debates (official report).: House of Lords,” Vol. 47, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, Printed for the Controller of H.M.S.O. by Harrison and Sons, 1922. http://books.google.com/books?id=CB0YAQAAMAAJ&q=%22jehad%22
  36. ^ N. S. Rajaram: “The Congress party’s weakness — Fondness for the foreign,” Indian Express, Jun 9, 1999. http://www.expressindia.com/news/ie/daily/19990609/iex09061.html
  37. ^ M. G. Chitkara: “Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: national upsurge,” APH Publishing, Jan 1, 2004, p. 18. http://books.google.com/books?id=ifuxzl9NM5sC&pg=PA18
  38. ^ “Turkey Condemns Opening of Genocide Monument in Sydney,” Epress.am, October 8, 2010. http://www.epress.am/en/2010/08/10/turkey-condemns-opening-of-genocide-monument-in-sydney.html
  39. ^ Khaldun S. Husry, “The Assyrian Affair of 1933″, (April 1974), International Journal of Middle East Studies (Cambridge University Press). http://www.jstor.org/stable/162587. http://www.jstor.org/stable/162383. http://journals.cambridge.org/article_S002074380003498X
  40. ^ Mar Eshai Shimun, Catholicos Patriarch: “The Assyrian Tragedy,” Xlibris Corporation, 2010, p. 43. http://books.google.com/books?id=VyxS-4ILXFAC&pg=PA43
  41. ^ Heather Robinson: “Israel’s Christian Sudanese Friends.” Reprinted from Ma’ariv. January 1, 2008. http://politicalmavens.com/index.php/2008/01/02/israels-christian-sudanese-friends
  42. ^ George Clooney and John Prendergast: “George Clooney and John Prendergast: We can prevent the next Darfur.” Washington Post, October 17, 2010. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/15/AR2010101503871.html
  43. ^ Andrew S. Natsios: “The President’s Special Envoy to Sudan.” House Committee on Foreign Affairs. February 8, 2007. http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/110/nat020807.htm
  44. ^ Edward H. Lawson, Mary Lou Bertucci: “Encyclopedia of Human Rights.” Taylor & Francis, 1996, p. 1418. http://books.google.com/books?id=J-SrdFtSuDUC&pg=PA141
  45. ^ Kevin M. Cahill: “Traditions, Values, and Humanitarian Action,” Fordham Univ Press, Jan 1, 2003, p. 77. http://books.google.com/books?id=8XBjEtg5uEEC&pg=PA77
  46. ^ David Patterson: “A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad.” Cambridge University Press, Oct 18, 2010. p. 152. http://books.google.com/books?id=lMLmK-fmf8kC&pg=PA152
  47. ^ Richard Morrock: “The Psychology of Genocide and Violent Oppression: A Study of Mass Cruelty from Nazi Germany to Rwanda,” McFarland, Oct 11, 2010, p. 123. http://books.google.com/books?id=CZtnAbKkOmIC&pg=PA123
  48. ^ Thomas David Mason: “Caught in the Crossfire: Revolutions, Repression, and the Rational Peasant,” Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, p. 18. http://books.google.com/books?id=1QpP8VZXM9cC&pg=PA18
  49. ^ Virginia Gawler: “Report claims secret genocide in Indonesia,” University of Sydney, August 19, 2005. http://sydney.edu.au/news/84.html?newsstoryid=651
  50. ^ Steven Carol: “Middle East Rules of Thumb: Understanding the Complexities of the Middle East,” iUniverse, Dec 5, 2008, p. 42. http://books.google.com/books?id=olcpeCz6cvcC&pg=PA42&lpg=PA42
  51. ^ Sean O’Hare: “Video: West Papuan rebels struggle for freedom,” Telegraph, November 11, 2010. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/expat/8119922/West-Papuan-rebels-struggle-for-freedom.html
  52. ^ Asia News: ‘Jihad Terror Papua New Guinea bishop: “Islamic extremists coming to West Papua,”‘ Info Papua, March 29, 2006. http://www.infopapua.org/artman/exec/view.cgi?archive=18&num=562&printer=1
  53. ^ “Jihad warriors back in business. Christians fear regrouping of Islamists who slaughtered thousands.” WND, March 7, 2003. http://www.wnd.com/2003/03/17628/
  54. ^ “40 Years Study Guide – General – Film – 40 Years of Silence.” Elemental Productions, Synopsis. http://www.40yearsofsilence.com/page/synopsis. DER – Documentary Educational Resources. Quality Ethnographic, Documentary, and Non-fiction Films from Around the World. http://www.der.org/resources/study-guides/forty-years-general.pdf.
  55. ^ Studia Islamika: Vol. 13, Issues 1-3, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah. State Institute for Islamic Studies of Syarif Hidayatullah, 2006, p. 11. http://books.google.com/books?&id=FsHXAAAAMAAJ&q=%22between+Communists+and+Muslims+who+had+been+enemies+since+the+massacre+of+1965-1966%2
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  58. ^ Geoffrey Robinson: “The dark side of paradise: political violence in Bali,” Cornell University Press, 1995, p. 281. http://books.google.com/books?id=m3Gfir3Ju70C&pg=PA281
  59. ^ Nicholas Tarling: “The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia,” Vol. 2, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 106. http://books.google.com/books?id=U0trzUvic-8C&pg=PA106
  60. ^ Bruce Loudon: “Echoes of Biafra as ethnic angst boils in Nigeria.” The Australian, January 02, 2012. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/echoes-of-biafra-as-ethnic-angst-boils-in-nigeria/story-e6frg6ux-1226234367832
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  64. ^ “When does a nation say enough is enough?” Jago Party, 2008. India faced more than 4,100 terrorist attacks between 1970 and 2004, accounting for more than 12,000 fatalities, according to the Global Terrorism Database. In 2007, the United States’ National Institute of Counter Terrorism calculated that between January 2004 and March 2007, the death toll in India from all terrorist attacks was 3,674… http://www.jago.in/news_desc.php?nid=35&language=english
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  67. ^ Mark Dummett: “Bangladesh war: The article that changed history.” BBC News, December 15, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-16207201
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